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Grew up in farm and ranch life about 70 miles west of Fort Worth, Texas near the small community of Perrin. Did undergraduate degree at Wayland Baptist University in Plainview, Texas (BA, 1964) and masters (MDiv, 1968) / doctorate (ThD, 1975) at Southwestern Baptist Seminary in Ft. Worth. Taught Koine Greek and New Testament at SWBTS 1974-1997. Then taught at Gardner-Webb University in Boiling Springs, NC (1998-2008). Pastored the IBC Baptist Church in Cologne Germany (2008-2010) before retiring and moving to Santa Ana, Costa Rica, where Claire and I now live.

Saturday, August 22, 2015


HISTORY OF ANGELS: What People Have Thought. This 62 page study in pdf format is now available in volume 37 of the BIC Commentary series at The central focus is on the teachings of scripture about angels but a wide variety of perspectives historically is included in the study as well.

The most fascinating aspect from this study has been seeking to trace down how angels who in the Bible resembled young Jewish men in their twenties turned into young females and occasionally children from the post middle ages on. The surrounding cultural influences upon the developing views of angels have been enormous upon almost every Christian group from the third century to the present. So much so that understandings of angels have depended far more on pagan religious teachings and extra canonical Jewish writings than on the scripture itself. The reformer John Calvin issued stern warnings in the middle 1500s about Christians devoting much attention to angels. From this study, I have come to realize the profound wisdom in Calvin's warnings.

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