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Grew up in farm and ranch life about 70 miles west of Fort Worth, Texas near the small community of Perrin. Did undergraduate degree at Wayland Baptist University in Plainview, Texas (BA, 1964) and masters (MDiv, 1968) / doctorate (ThD, 1975) at Southwestern Baptist Seminary in Ft. Worth. Taught Koine Greek and New Testament at SWBTS 1974-1997. Then taught at Gardner-Webb University in Boiling Springs, NC (1998-2008). Pastored the IBC Baptist Church in Cologne Germany (2008-2010) before retiring and moving to Santa Ana, Costa Rica, where Claire and I now live.

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Rom. 1:1-7 Praescriptio now in BIC

BIC Volume 9: Rom. 1:1-7, Praescriptio

The 38 page commentary in pdf format on the first seven verses of Paul's Letter to the Romans is now available online in the Biblical Insights Commentary series in volume nine at 
Paul's opening of the letter of introduction to the Christian community at Rome is both traditional and highly creative. Traditional in that he follows his standard format in the Praescriptio that is found in all his letters. And this represents a creative adaptation of the standard Greek letter Praescriptio found in thousands of extent letters from this era. 
But very creative in the expansion elements that are developed off the core expressions. They center on the εὐαγγέλιον θεοῦ, as well as the themes of κλητὸς / κλητοὶ and χάρις.

1 Παῦλος
        δοῦλος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ, 
        κλητὸς ἀπόστολος 
  • ἀφωρισμένος εἰς εὐαγγέλιον θεοῦ, ὃ προεπηγγείλατο διὰ τῶν προφητῶν αὐτοῦ ἐν γραφαῖς ἁγίαις περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ τοῦ γενομένου ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυὶδ κατὰ σάρκα, τοῦ ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ θεοῦ ἐν δυνάμει κατὰ πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης ἐξ ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν, Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν, διʼ οὗ ἐλάβομεν χάριν καὶ ἀποστολὴν εἰς ὑπακοὴν πίστεως ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ,  
  • ἐν οἷς ἐστε καὶ ὑμεῖς κλητοὶ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,

 7 πᾶσιν τοῖς οὖσιν ἐν Ῥώμῃ  
            ἀγαπητοῖς θεοῦ, 
            κλητοῖς ἁγίοις, 

χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη 
  • ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.

Tuesday, December 27, 2016

2017 Anticipations

2017 Anticipations

 At the end of December we face a new year. Never in my 75 years have I indulged in making resolutions for the coming year. Instead, an ongoing commitment to faithfully serve the Lord moment by moment has been my sole objective. Clearly now I am nearing the end of my earthly journey, and I am excited about the possibility of it happening during the 75th year of my earthly existence. I have felt for several decades that 75 years would bring to completion of the Lord's work through the ministry He gave me in the 1950s. 
As I look at what is happening and about to happen in the land of my birth, profound apprehension looms heavily before me. The insane election of an anti-Christ figure to lead the government of the US bodes nothing but exploding corruption, unbridled materialistic greed, and a narcissistic godlessness settling over the US like a poisonous smog. Perhaps the saddest part is the brain washed professing Christians who have become enslaved to this insanity, much like conservative Christianity was swept up into Nazism in the Germany of the 1920s and 30s by similar deceptive propaganda. 

The prospect of a trip to Heaven before enduring much of this chaos cheers my heart greatly. And even if that trip is delayed awhile, another alternative move is beginning come into place. And that is to Lake Chapala, Mexico. Before moving to Costa Rica in 2010, we were seriously considering a move to this expat center of over 100,000 US retirees. The standard of living there is higher than in the US but for about a third of the cost. Perhaps now, that will come to pass. It all depends on the Lord's leading in what He has in store for us.  
But wherever the Lord takes us in 2017, one thing is certain: we will remain unrelentingly true to our commitment to Christ. That means continual work on the BIC commentary series and expansion of And it also means passionate activism for biblical based values of righteousness, justice, and respect of all people.
So Claire and I step into 2017 with much uncertainty in the world around us and for what may happen during the year. But this is not the basis of our confidence for the future. The Lord alone will guide us and take us in His paths of service and ministry until our heavenly home going!

Friday, December 23, 2016

Christmas 2016 means that we have lived in San Angelo, Texas for one year, after moving from Santa Ana, Costa Rica. For the most part the year has been enjoyable. 
The Baptist Retirement Community has provided us a delightful duplex apartment that we have thoroughly enjoyed. The staff have been very helpful to assist us in the transition into retirement living. A multitude of activities and services are available here. We have made many new friends, as well as renewed friendships from earlier times. 
But even more enjoyable for us has been our church, the Southland Baptist Church, in San Angelo. Although a larger congregation, we have found an atmosphere of friendliness, compassion, limitless missionary commitment, and just a warm spiritual presence of God. The senior pastor, Dr. Taylor Sandlin, is a superb preacher and pastor. As well, the rest of the staff are extraordinarily talented and committed. Our Sunday School class matches the church in these qualities and we thoroughly enjoy our teacher, Joanne Rice, and the excellent leadership she provides to the group of around 50 class members. 
Our health, and particularly mine, has been the dark side of our experience during the past year. Claire continues to wrestle with asthma and allergy issues after being largely free of them since we moved from Texas to North Carolina in December of 1997. And other age based challenges have surfaced as well during 2016. Yet, in spite of all these, she has developed a real ministry here as the center librarian and photographer. Additionally, a pastoral ministry of sorts has emerged to several of the elderly widows, some of whom do not have family close by. She visits these ladies weekly to offer help and encouragement. 
For me, the health issues have exploded to such a point that not just the limited sleep at night is my fate but spending the better part of virtually every day in bed has also become mandatory. Walking is becoming increasingly limited to very short distances. Thus the majority of my time is spent confined to the apartment with a few occasional treks to eat out and help Claire get groceries, plus church on Sundays. At the root cause behind my problems stands the poisonous American medicines that I have been prescribed. The different doctors kept piling on new medicines until mid summer when it reached a high of 18 separate medicines that I was supposed to take daily. At this point I balked completely at continuing this and after convincing my general doctor and the endocrinologist of the impossibility of continuing this we began eliminating different medicines. We are now down to 8 and have a couple or so more yet to go over the next few months. With the elimination of each medicine, slight improvement in my health as surfaced. 
Of course, the really black cloud over this year has been the insane stupidity of the American voting public in falling for the lies and deception of Donald Trump. While the rest of the world has watched in utter shock at how gullible the Americans are, the reincarnation of the Nazi Germany of the 1920s and 30s has been set in motion in the US. Claire and I have taken a passionate stand against this evil that completely denies every value that Christ stands for. Interestingly we have discovered here a goodly number of like minded individuals here in the sea of red that Texas reflects. Thus rays of light and hope do manage to penetrate the dark, dreary clouds of fascism settling in over the US.
The main bright spot for me, with all of the physical limitations I'm facing during these days, is the continuing ministry of Work has continued on writing the extensive commentary on the New Testament through the Biblical Insights Commentary. A 373 page commentary on Second Corinthians was completed as volume 11 in the BIC series and this provided a finalized template for the remaining volumes in the series. The next project is already underway with an extensive commentary on Romans in preparation. Simultaneously this means progress on THE APOSTLE PAUL: SERVANT OF CHRIST project, now over 1,500 pages in length. A couple of devotional articles will be published by a major US religious publisher in 2017 that were written this year. The activism through several social media outlets has really expanded with close to a thousand people globally connected up with me for interaction. Thus Gospel ministry continues for me in spite of all the physical limitations. For that I am profoundly grateful to God.
Thus Christmas 2016 somewhat mirrors the world that Jesus was born into at the beginning of the Christian era.  Politically it was an overwhelmingly depressing time for Jewish peasants whose sincere faith found divine favor. Into the deep darkness of that moment came the incarnate God as an infant born to poverty stricken Jewish peasants. Angels and despised, fringe living shepherds, however, celebrated His birth with indescribable joy and hope for the future. And even foreigners from the East searched out the young Jesus afterwards to honor him as the promised Messiah. The 'in crowd' missed it completely. But many on the edge of society 'got it' totally. So those in our day pushed to the fringes of modern society have a source of hope and encouragement. Just as for Jesus and his family who faced many, many challenges in the coming years after Jesus' birth, so do we in our day. But we will face them in the same faith surrender of Mary and Joseph. 
Thus to our many friends around the world we say, 
     "Frohe Weihnachten und genießen Sie eine herrliche Weihnachtszeit."
     "Feliz Navidad y puede disfrutar de unas maravillosas vacaciones."
     "Joyeux Noël et vous pouvez profiter d'une merveilleuse saison des fêtes."
     "Merry Christmas and may you enjoy a marvelous holiday season."


Monday, November 28, 2016

BIC Volume 11: Second Corinthians now available in numerous formats

All of the materials relating to volume eleven on Second Corinthians are now posted in the BIC commentary series at The best place to begin is with the HELP page for volume eleven which explains both the options as well as provides some background information. The hyperlink is in the Volume 11 text in the homepage for volume eleven.
Instructions on the use of volume eleven is available in html, video clip, power point, and pdf formats. Just click on the desired format. The video clip has audition as well as visual presentation.

Although the work in creating the 373 page commentary on Second Corinthians took a long time and was filled with very tedious effort, the personal impact on my life through developing this material has been immense. I have come to appreciate how Paul handled conflict in the church at Corinth, especially when much of it was directed against him by some in the Corinthian Christian community. His example of aggressively responding to distortion and deception by professing Christians has much to teach us as Christians in our chaotic world today. 

Saturday, November 12, 2016


What is the best way to finish up a writing project? In our modern western culture the usual answer is to write a CONCLUSION (Schlussfolgerung; Conclusión; Conclusion) in which a summary of the key ideas are repeated in brief expression (Zusammenfassung; Resumen; Résumé). Another possibility is for the Conclusion to be an application of the relevance of the article (Anwendung; Solicitud; Application). 

In the ancient letter writing  pattern which Paul follows in his letters inside the New Testament, none of the above patterns are followed. Instead, most every one of the many thousands of still existing letters out of Paul's world contains a Conclusio element at the end. The content of this ending of the letter could vary widely, but a few items almost always would be included. Especially for Paul both a Greetings and a Benedictio were inserted always. Several other items are found in his canonical letters which vary according to the situation behind each letter. Yet, he always said hello to his readers and offered a concluding prayer for the grace of Christ to be upon his readers. The Greetings were important due to the critical importance of φιλία connections being maintained, and the benediction due to the concluding of the Christian assembly with a closing prayer in following the example of the Jewish synagogue Friday evening gatherings. 

The Conclusio of Second Corinthians is both typical and unique among those in Paul's letters. Available now is the 21 page exegesis of 2 Cor. 13:11-13, the Conclusio of Second Corinthians. It is found in the BIC commentary series, volume 11 on Second Corinthians, at  At the end you will find a summary application of chapters 10-13 of the commentary. Enjoy!  

Tuesday, November 1, 2016

Here at the beginning of November we are entering the holiday season where many people travel to visit family and friends. Lots of time and effort is put into getting ready to receive visitors. In the final segment of the BIBLICAL INSIGHTS commentary on Second Corinthians, volume 11, the impending third visit of Paul to the church at Corinth is discussed in 12:14 - 13:10. Τρίτον τοῦτο ἔρχομαι πρὸς ὑμᾶς. This third time I am coming to you. (13:1) With this indication, the basic objective of the entire letter is achieved, and especially his defense of his ministry in chapters 10-13. For the Corinthians, Paul was in a love / hate relationship. Most in the community respected him as a divinely called messenger of God, but several hated him passionately. Why? Because Paul insisted on genuine faith surrender to Christ that rejected the tendency to culturally corrupt the Gospel. In his appearance, Paul didn't look or act like a leader. That is, a standard Greco-Roman take charge kind of leader who could be idolized as a heroic figure. Besides, individuals from the Christian community in Judea had arrived in Corinth and questioned Paul's claims as an apostle. Chapters 10-13 contain the apostle's eloquent defense of the kind of ministry he had given to the church at Corinth. It wasn't impressive when viewed from the standards of leadership in the world of non-Christian Corinth. But it was a Christ centered ministry of humble surrender to the will of God.  Paul's ingenious way of defending the God centered ministry challenges all of us today to examine how much our culture shapes our religious thinking rather than the revelation of God in the Bible. This 32 page study will unpack Paul's thinking about ministry.

Tuesday, October 4, 2016

DEFENDING ONE'S MINISTRY, 2 Corinthians 11:1-12:13
This segment of the commentary covers essentially chapters 11 and 12 of Second Corinthians as a part of volume 11 of the Biblical Insights Commentary. It is 90 pages in length as a pdf file. The original Greek text is one of the most complicated text sections in the entire Greek New Testament.
The apostle Paul in chapters 10 - 13 of this letter is defending his ministry against criticisms leveled against Paul from two sources. First, came the insider criticisms from select members of the Christian community at Corinth. Mostly, Paul addresses these individuals in chapters ten and thirteen. However, in chapters eleven and twelve he primarily targets outsiders who have traveled to Corinth evidently from Judea and have severely questioned Paul as a divinely called messenger of the true Gospel. Their claim, naturally, is of having a superior message and credentials to teach this alternative message.
Paul's challenge is to confront these false teachers in an appeal to the Corinthians church to remain faithful to the initial apostolic Gospel preached by him at the establishment of the church some years earlier. How to best do this?
Feeling some pressure from the Corinthian church members, Paul steps out of his comfort zone and adopts a rather popular strategy of defending his ministry through the use of a 'fool's speech,' that is contained in 11:1-12:13. This literary device was popular in Greek and Latin speaking circles of the mid-first century, but not used much at all among Jews. The heart of the device was to argue one's case by adopting the techniques of one's opponents in a Greco-Roman setting. Mostly, this centered on a bragging contest of one-up-man-ship about who has the best credentials and best message or teaching. Thus comparisons with one's opponents functioned at the heart of the contest of boasting. The 'fool's speech' made heavy use of biting sarcasm in the bragging.
Paul's uncomfortableness with this approach is expressed several times through the speech. But he felt compelled by Corinthian demands that he defend himself with a way of thinking that the Greek and Roman oriented Corinthians themselves knew and understood. His choice was brilliant and he makes a powerful case for a ministry that, instead of being self generated as the outsider group claimed for themselves, was instead a divinely blessed superior ministry in and through a man who himself was a nothing. The insider critics who claimed for themselves superior skills in Greek rhetoric etc. to Paul came to discover that this know-little Jewish preacher possessed brilliant skills with one of the most complex ways of making one's case known in the ancient world. These two chapters are a masterpiece in the use of biting sarcasm embedded into surprising and unexpected ways of setting up comparisons with one's opponents.
For us modern readers, this is the source of the huge difficulties in understanding Paul's ideas in these two chapters. We want everything presented in simple black and white terms. But in these chapters Paul lives in a weaving pattern of idea expression virtually completely in the grayish mid tones with only a few black/white expressions. The English language reader will notice this somewhat by a confusing maze of very differing translations of these two chapters. And one can be certain that the simple idea expression in some of the more contemporary English translations especially are giving you, the reader, a highly re-contextualized translation assuming modern frameworks, not the first century framework that Paul is working in.
What can we learn from Paul's example here? The final section of this commentary chapter attempts to pull together some lessons from these chapters. I'll leave it up to you to go through these and see whether you agree or not with my conclusions.